ESTONIA

 
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY (Students of 3rd ESO D)
 
Main data of the country 
 
Area
 
45,228 sp km, land: 42,388 sp km and water: 2,840 sp km

Population
 
1,282,963:
 
65% Estonians, 30% Russian, 5% other countries.

Map of the country



Borders
 
It occupies a continental territory in the north end of the Baltic coastal plain, and an island territory along the coast. It limits the north with the Gulf of Finland and west by the Baltic Sea. To the east, Lake Peipsi and the Narva River form the largest part of the Russian border, southern border with Latvia.

Capital city
 
Tallin.


Main cities
 
Tallin, Vaindloo, Naha, Nootamaa and Narva.
 

Political organization

Parliament
The parliament is in Riigikovu
 
Elections 
president elected by Parliament for a five-year term , if a candidate does not meet two thirds of the votes after three rounds of voting in parliament, an electoral assembly elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with most votes, the last elections held on August 29, 2011.

President or Prime Minister
The president is Toomas Hendrick Ives and the prime Minister is Andrus Ansip.

King or Queen
Estonia doesn’t have a king or Queen.


Belonging to international organizations

U.E.
 
WEBGRAPHY
 
 
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF ESTONIA (Students of 3rd ESO B)
Economic Data
GPD of Estonia
$24.69 billion (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

$23.95 billion (2009 est.)
$27.81 billion (2008 est.)

GPD per capita

$19,100 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63

$18,400 (2009 est.)
$21,300 (2008 est.)

Main Products

The main products are grain, potatoes, vegetables, livestock, dairy products and fish.
Imports
$11.94 billion (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 85

$9.903 billion (2009)
 
Exports

$11.66 billion (2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 81

$9.125 billion (2009 est.)
 

Main Partners

Export partners: Finland 18.5%, Sweden 17%, Russia 10.4%, Latvia 9.8%, Germany 5.7%, Lithuania 5.3% (2010)

Import partners: Finland 15.7%, Germany 11.9%, Sweden 11.6%, Latvia 11.5%, Lithuania 8.2%, Poland 6.8%, Russia 4.5% (2010)
 
 
Social Data
Ethnic groups
 
Estonian 68.7%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.2%, Finn 0.8%, other 1.6% (2008 census)
 

DHI (Human Development Index)

44

Gini Index

33

 
Demographics

Population

1,282,963 (July 2011 est.)

country comparison to the world: 155
 
 
Density

The density of the population is 30,1 hab/km2
 

Natality Rate
 
10.45 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
 

Mortality Rate

13.55 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
 

Life expentancy

total population: 73.33 years

country comparison to the world: 119

male: 68.02 years

female: 78.97 years (2011 est.)
 

Percentage of Migrants

-3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
(-0,331%)


Webgraphy
• 
http://www.oficinascomerciales.es/icex/cda/controller/pageOfecomes/0,5310,5280449_5296128_5296234_0_EE,00.html



HISTORY & CULTURE OF ESTONIA (Students of 3rd A)
              

History

Estonia was incorporated into Christianity in the early thirteenth century.

In the Baltic Sea region, power was in the hands of the Hanseatic League;  the League owned several cities in Estonia, including 

Tallinn (Reval), which had been founded in 1248.

On the first half of the century XVI the Reformation reached Estonia. From then on, Estonia became part of the Lutheran cultural space.

After the Great Northern War, Estonia was under Russian power (1721).

On February 24, 1918, Estonia was proclaimed a Republic. After the period of Soviet occupation in 1940, Estonia was occupied by Nazi 

Germany between 1941 and 1944. In autumn 1944, the Soviet Union incorporated Estonia to Russian territory.

Estonia regained its independence (as of the Singing Revolution of 1988). Since 1991, Estonia is again a fully independent country.

Estonia became a member of NATO on March 29, 2004 and of the European Union on May 1, 2004.

 

Main monumental cities

Tallinn (the capital) 

With a population of 400,000 people is one of the few cities that still conserves its medieval walls in good conditions.

 

 
Other main towns are Tartuwith 100,000 people; Narva and Kohtla-JÄrve, both in Ida-Viru with 47,600 people the first one and 45,500 the second one.

 

Main artists

Ülo Zoster, Leonhard Lapin, Jüri Arrak and Enn Põldroos (those last two the favorites of the public).

Other important artist from Estonia are Jaan Toomik, Ene-Liis Semper, Marco Laimre, Kaido Ole and Marko Mäetamm

The works of Jaan Kross, distinguished figure of the letters referred to Estonian history and the fate of Estonian people, are still popular and well known.

 

Music & Folk

There is a music event called Estonian music Festival. It`s considered one of the largest amateur choral events in the world, a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. It takes place at the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds every 5 years on July.

We can also highlight that Estonia won the 45th edition of Eurovision Festival in 2001 in Copenhague, with the song Everybody,  perfomed by singers Tanel Padar and Dave BentonThis event brought into the country to host the Eurovision contest the following year.

Other festival, the Hea Uus Heli had the objective to let know experimental and alternative music.

Estonian runo-song (Estonian: regilaul) has been extensively recorded and studied, especially those sung by women. They can come in many forms, including work songs, ballads and epic legends.

The kantele (Estonian: kannel) is a native instrument that is now more popular among Estonian-Americans than in its homeland.

 

Main music artists

The contemporani composers Arvo Pärt, Veljo Tormis and Erkki-Sven Tuur surely needs no introduction to lovers of music, neither the directors Neeme Järvi, Eri Klas and Tõnu Kaljuste, and increasingly recognized as Anu Tali, who has conducted orchestras and choirs all over the world. Other composers are Mart Saar (1882–1963), Artur Lemba (1885–1963), Heino Eller (1887–1970) and Cyrillus Kreek (1889–1962).

The girl band Vanilla Ninja (on the picture below) is one of the best-known Estonians in popular music, having had success in several Central European countries. Kerli is a known pop-rock singer and songwriter on Estonia, and she has had moderate success in the United States. Metsatöll is a folk-metal band combining runo-song and traditional folk instruments with metal. Another Estonian folk metal group is Raud-ants.
 
 
 

 

Food

Main dishes

The main dishes of Estonia are:

Leib, or black bread. It’s almost taken on a sacred quality. It’s so prized, some Estonians refer to meat only as “something to go with the bread.” One Estonian version of bon appetit is jätku leiba—which literally means “may your bread last.”

Kartulid, or potatoes, were introduced here in the 1700s. They’re now part and parcel of virtually all genuine Estonian meals.

Kotlet, hamburger patty with onions.

Verivorst/blood sausage.

Sült/jellied meat. As with Scottish haggis, it’s better if you don’t know what’s in it (One hint: pigs feet).

Kohupiim, cottage cheese-like, often used in cakes and pastries.

Kringel is a sweet German-style bread knotted and sprinkled with nuts and raisins. A standard at Estonian birthdays.

Other foods you’ll commonly find on an Estonian’s table: pancakes, beet salad, honey, herring, pickled pumpkin, and crayfish.

 

Cinema

Main directors, actors and movies

The cinema arrived to in Estonia in 1896.

Priit Parn is the most famous estonian director of animated movies.

Next to the old guard of film directors (Jüri Sillart, Peeter Simm), a new generation of filmmakers has emerged, with names such as Maimik Andres, Jaak Kilmi, René Vilbre, etc..

Some famous actors and actresses are Dajan Ahmet, Ivan Triesault, Tõnu Trubetsky, Lenna Kuurmaa, Helle Meri, Andrus Vaarik,Juhan Viiding,Priit Võigemast...

 

Religion

Estonians are a mostly atheist country, because of the Soviet Russian influence. 

 

Sports

Main sports practised in the country

Skiing and cross-country skiing have a special sense for the Estonians. In the snowy winters of the country, skiing is a leisure activity for the whole family.        

Estonia is also home to a unique variant of the game in Ice Cricket.

Basketball and cycling are also featured significantly in Estonia.

 

Olympic medals

Estonia has won a total of 31 medals in Summer Olympics sport in all its history, 9 of them are gold, 8 are silver and 14, bronze.

 

Main football teams

The main football team of Estonia is The Estonia national football and this team represents Estonia in international association football. Team members are selected by the head coach of Estonian Football Association (EJL).

 

Other features

The ski season culminates with the Tartu Marathon, 60 miles long. The hard path of this competition is a challenge for thousands of skiers. Tartu Marathon is part of the Worldloppet series of competitions.
 
 

 

The Saku Suurhall Arena is the biggest stadium of sports and concerts of Estonia and it is located in Tallinn, the capital. It was built in 2001 and has a capacity for 10,000 spectators. It generally take in basketball games, where BC Kalev Tallinn / Cramo acts as a local. It also hosts concerts and ice hockey games. The name derives from the premises of local beer Saku. The most famous of Estonian athletes in Europe in the nineties was Erkki Nool in Sydney Olympic gold medalist in the decathlon. Other high-class athletes follow in their footsteps - javelin thrower Värnik Andrus, who was crowned world champion in 2005, and discus throwers Aleksander Tammert Gerd Kanter, the last won an Olympic bronze medal in 2004.

 

WEBGRAPHY

 

Estonian embassy in Spain:

http://www.estemb.es/

Wikipedia:

http://www.wikipedia.org

BalticsWorldWilde

http://www.balticsworldwide.com/tourist/estonia/estonian%20_food.htm

 

 

 

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