ITALY


POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY (Students of 3r ESO D).

Area

The Italy’s total area is 301,230 square kilometers (294,020 square kilometers are land and 7,210 square kilometers are water).


Population

Italy has 61,016,804 people.

 

Borders

The borders of Italy has, including the islands, a coastline and border of 7,600 km on the Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas (740 km), and borders shared with France (488 km), Austria (430 km), Slovenia (232 km) adn Switzerland; San marino (39 km) and Vatican City (3.2 km) , both enclaves, account for the remainder.


Capital city (and its population)

The capital city of Italy is Rome and it has 2,770,000 inhabitants.

 

Main cities ( and its population) 

Milan (1,267,000 inhabitants) 

Naples (1,041,000 inhabitants) 

Turin (901,000 inhabitants

Palermo (702,000 inhabitants

Genoa (626,000 inhabitants)

Bologna (380,000 inhabitants)

Florence (376,000 inhabitants

Bari (335,000 inhabitants)


Political organization 

Italy has been a democratic republic since June 2, 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum. The Constitution was promulgated on January 1, 1948.


 King  or  Queen 

Italy is a Republic and it is governed by the Prime Minister (Mario Monti).


Elections (sort of elections, sort of political system)

Elections to the Parliament take place every five years. The President or chief of State is chosen every seven years.

The calculation of votes and the distribution of benches become national. The national Italian territory is divided in five electoral circumscriptions. Italy has 87 benches. The calculation of votes and the distribution of benches becomes  national. Citizens over 18 years old are able to vote. 

The Italian resident citizens in the States of the community , vote in the condition in which they reside. 

 

Parliament (sort of parliament) 

The parliament is a bicameral one. It is articulated in two Assemblies, which are the Deputies' Chamber (630 members) and the Senate of the Republic (315 members). 

The mandate of deputy and senator lasts 5 years.

 The Government formed by the President of the Advice and for the Secretaries, exercises the executive power. 

The judicial power is exercised by the Magistracy, which maximum organ is the Top Advice of the Magistracy. Essentials elements of the political Italian life are the political parties that assemble to the electorate in conformity with the diverse ideological trends.


Political system and Elections

The political system is democracy. The present electoral system, approved on December 14, 2005, is based on party-list representation with a series of thresholds to encourage parties to form coalitions. It replaced an Additional Member electoral system which had been introduced in the 1990.


Map of the country 

 

Webgrafia:

-         Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki

-         TDS : http://www.traveldocs.com/it/govern.htm

-         World Wide Taxi: http://www.worldwide-tax.com/italy

 


ECONOMIC & SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY (Students of 3rd ESO B)

Economy of Italy

 

GPD of Italy

The Gross Domestic Product or GDP of the country reaching 1.273 trillion US dollars has made the Economy in Italy, the sixth richest in the world in 2008.

Gross Domestic Product in Italy (2008)

NUTS-1 region

mil. €

€ per cap.

% of the EU average

North-Western Italy

503,250

31,800

126

North-Eastern Italy

357,400

31,300

124

Central Italy

343,711

29,300

116

Southern Italy

245,770

17,400

69

Insular Italy

117,720

17,600

69

 

GPD per capita of italy

The Economy in Italy, in terms of the per capita income, holds the 18 th place in the world.

 

Exports

$458.4 billion (2010 est.).

 

Export goods

Engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, and nonferrous metals.

 

Main export partners

Germany 12.6%, France 11.57%, United States 5.92%, Spain 5.69%, United Kingdom 5.13%, Switzerland 4.69% (2009).

 

Imports

$459.7 billion (2010 est.).

 

Import goods

engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, and tobacco.


Main import partners

Germany 16.68%, France 8.82%, China 6.53%, Netherlands 5.63%, Spain 4.3%, Russia 4.12%, Belgium 4.08% (2009).

 

Italy’s exportations

Italy's major exports are precision machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals and electric goods, but the country's more famous exports are in the fields of food, clothing, and luxury vehicles. Famous Italian foods have been brought to the rest of the world through Italian emigration.

 

Italian foods include a multitude of pasta dishes (originating in 1500s Italy), pizza (born in 1800s Naples), ice cream, parma ham, rice, parmesan cheese and wine. The most famous Italian wines are probably the Tuscan Chianti and Piedmontese Pinot Grigio. Other famous wines are Barbaresco, Barolo and Barbera (Piedmont), Brunello di Montalcino (Tuscany), Montepulciano d'Abruzzo (Abruzzo) and Nero d'Avola (Sicily).

Italy is known also for its fashion houses; Versace, Valentino, Fendi, Gucci, Prada, Roberto Cavalli, Sergio Rossi, Dolce & Gabbana, Benetton, Armani and others.

Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini and also Alfa Romeo are all associated with top-of-the-line carmaking. Italy's sole mass car producer, FIAT, has struggled in recent times due to high input costs and declining market share, although a recent revival has seen a return to profit

 


SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY


 HDI (human development index, 2011)

0.874 (17th country in the World)

 

Gini index

 

Demographics


Italy's Population

60,600,000 inhabitants

 

The total population in Italy was last reported at 60.6 million people in 2010 from 50.2 million in 1960, changing 21 percent during the last 50 years. Italy has 0.88 percent of the world´s total population which means that one person in every 114 people on the planet is a resident of Italy.

 

Density

201.2/km2 (2010)

 

Natality rate

9.18 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)


Country

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Italy

9.13

9.05

8.93

9.18

9.05

8.89

8.72

8.54

8.36

8.18

8.01

9.18

 

Mortality rate

9.84 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)


Country

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Italy

9.99

10.07

10.13

10.12

10.21

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.61

10.72

10.83

9.84

 

Life expectancy


81.77 years 


male: 79.16 years 


female: 84.53 years (2011 est.)

 

Country

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Italy

79.03

79.14

79.25

79.4

79.54

79.68

79.81

79.94

80.07

80.2

80.33

81.77

 

Ethnic groups

Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south).

Italian                              55,818,099          92.00%

Romanian                          1,500,000            2.47%

North African                       646,624            1.07%

Albanian                              466,684            0.77%

Chinese                               188,352            0.28%

Ukrainian                             153,998            0.31%

Asian (non-Chinese)              499,013            0.83%

Latin American                    324,917            0.54%

Sub-Saharan African             285,169            0.47%

Other                                 782,549            1.29%

 

More Italians have migrated to the United States than any other Europeans.

 


WEBGRAPHY

·         https://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/anticipedia/xwiki/bin/view/Main/Social+Partners+and+Flexicurity+in+Italy

·         http://www.indexmundi.com/italy/ethnic_groups.html

·         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index

·         http://www.tradingeconomics.com/italy/income-share-held-by-fourth-20percent-wb-data.html

·         http://www.tradingeconomics.com/italy/population

·         http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=density+of+italy

·         http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=it&v=26

·         http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=it&v=25

·         http://www.indexmundi.com/italy/life_expectancy_at_birth.html      

·         http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/italian_immigration.cfm

 


CULTURE OF ITALY (Students of 3r ESO A)
 
GASTRONOMY

Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, the cuisine can claim traceable roots as far back as the IV century. Throughout the centuries, neighbouring regions, conquerors, high-profile chefs, political upheaval and the discovery of the New World have influenced one of the premiere cuisines in the world.

The main characteristics of Italian cuisine are its extreme simplicity, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients.

The main dishes are pizza, pasta, risotto etc. and the main ingredients are tomatoes, salami, oil, parmesan etc.

Among the most popular plates of the Italian gastronomy we have:


The pizza

That with all his varieties and complements it is undoubtedly the most popular plate not only in Italy but largely of the world, and it is that the variety of textures and contents that can include his preparation, they do an ideal plate to him to be adapted to other cultures by his aptitude to fuse different ingredients. The most traditional pizza is the shaped one for a flat bread baked (based on flour of wheat, water, salt and yeast) that is covered with sauce of tomato and cheese mozzarella.

 

The risotto

This traditional saucer based on rice, is a glutinous rice of flavour and intense smell that is served in Italy. His flavour meets complemented with scum and cheese mozzarella.

 

The Rosmarino Focaccia

The Rosmarino Focaccia is a plate similar to the pizza - at least in the production of the mass- and that consists of flour, water, fresh yeast, salt, olive oil and fresh rosemary.

 

The lasagna

The lasagne is made by pasta that is served in sheets that are filled with meat sauce, different types of cheeses, and even, they can be refilled by seafood and vegetables, later there receive a generous portion of Parmesan cheese. The whole thing is placed in the owen for a while.This saucer is traditional for the winter epoch.

 

The ravioli

This local dish is shaped by chunks of pasta in squares that it re-bends and refills according to the tastes of every region or country. For example, we can find raviolis of meat sauce, vegetables, seafood, chicken, among others.

The tortellini, the cappelletti and the pansotti, all variants of pastas in different forms, for example rings, which are refilled by meat, cheeses, hams, and others. They are served in plates accompanied with a bit broth and sauces.

 


MUSIC

The Italian music has developed opera and instrumental sets. The music of Italy has been always a cultural reference. The opera is what mash stands out against his music.  The tradition of the Neapolitan canzone and singers who write their own songs represent popular styles that, in addition, form a part  of the musical Italian industry, close to kinds imported as the jazz, the music rock and the hip hop.
The first of the country is the music folkloric for cultural inheritance, has a wide set of regional styles, you dance and instruments. Between the big Italian contributions to the music of the 19th century there is Paganini born in Genoa in 1784 and dead man in 1840, who was the most extraordinary violinist who has existed.

Main music artists

The modern singers are:

 -Lorenzo Jovanotti

- Marco Massini

-  Laura Pausini ( she often sings in Spanish)

- Zucchero

- Adriano Celetano

The most famous Italian singers are:

- Andrea Bocelli

- Nicola Divari

- Umberto Tozzi

- Mina

- Ornella Vanoni

 
Art of Italy
 

Architecture
The Italian architecture was born in the constructions that were carried out by the Etruscans and Greeks. 

Ancient rome
 It is characterized by the grand of the buildings and its solidity. The most significant elements of the Roman architecture are the vault, the arch and dome. An example of dome is Agripa's pantheon; and example of vaults the thermal baths of Caracalla or Majencio's basílica. The 

Gothic architecture
From the 13th century several gothic constructions, such as the cathedral of Siena, the palazzo Vecchio of Florence were built.  The greatest work of the Italian Gothic is the cathedral of Milan, which stands out for the overload of his decoration.

Architecture of Renaissance 
The architecture of Renaissance dominated the XV and the XVI centuries. It is characterized by the innovation in the means of production, for example in the architectural language. The architecture of the Renaissance was quite related to a vision of the world during this period supported by two pillars, the classicism and the humanism.

Architecture of the barroque 
The baroque came in an epoch of division between Catholics and Protestants. The two most important architects of this time are Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini.
                              

Sculture

Roman sculpture 
The Roman sculpture was influenced by the Greeks. They had different types of sculpture:  portray (normally to the emperors); Statues; Sarcophagi; architectural Reliefs; Cameos; Toys; Statuette of private worship and decorated objects. Some sculptures are the bust of Marcus Porcius, Genius of August, Tellus's representation in the Altar Pacis.

Byzantine sculpture 
The Byzantine style is considered to be a derivation and degeneracy of the Roman, under the Asian influence. Some aspects are characterized by the inflexibility and uniformity. 

Romanesque sculpture
The romanesque sculpture was mainly dedicated to the education of the Biblical scenes with reliefs of stone that were understandable for the lay believers. An example of this type of sculptures is The doubt of Saint Thomas.

Gothic sculpture 
The Gothic sculpture develops principally in the Toscana. Some of the sculptors more important: Nicolas Pisano, who made the Cathedral of Pisa and Siena's Cathedral.

Renaissance sculpture 
The Renaissance period meant a process of recovery of the classic antiquity’s sculpture. One of the most important sculptors was Miquel Angel Buonarroti, who made the Piety of the Vatican. 

Baroque sculpture 
The baroque sculpture develops together with architectural creations. The principal characteristics were: the use of marble or wood, the representation of the human figure with a perfect objectivity in all his aspects, the technology of foreshortening and the expressionism. The most important sculptors are: Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Alessandro Algardi, Giuliano Finelli and Nicolás Fumo.

Painting
The origins of Roman painting can be found in Hellenistic art and the best examples are frescos.

Some different decorative genres coexist, such as historical, mythological, landscape or portrait.

Renaissance painting
Quattrocento (XV century): Painters developed applied perspective on the paintings, representing the depth. Some famous painters are: Masaccio, Fra Angelico,Sandro Botticelli, Piero della Francesca, Paolo Uccello, Filippo Lippi and Andrea Mantegna.

Cinquecento (XVI century): It was characterized by the passage of intellectually medieval theocentrism to humanist anthropocentrism of the modern age, and stylistically by the pursuit of artistic forms of classical antiquity and imitation (mimesis) of nature.

Some Italian painters of the Cinquecento are Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo.

Italian Baroque painting

Italian Baroque painting developed from the late XVI century and throughout the XVII and was born in Rome. Italian painting of the time tried to break with the forms of mannerism. And it did with two trends that were opposite to each other: naturalism and painters classicism. The most famous painters of the time were Caravaggio and Artemisia Gentilleschi. 
 
 
 

 

RELIGION

Italy is a distinctly religious country. Catholics in Italy are the majority. The 87.8% of the population is Catholic and 36.8% a practitioner.

The Vatican City lies in the middle of the capital city of Italy. With its 0.44 km2 and its 1000 inhabitants, it is the smallest and the least populated country in the world. It hosts the headquarters of the Catholic religion, constantly receiving thousands of pilgrims visit or simply tourists eager to admire all the wealth of art it contains.

CINEMA

In 1905, the first cinemas opened in Italy. 

Films of the Italian Neorealism are:

     -The bootblack (1946), by Vittorio de Sica 

     -Paisà (1946), by Roberto Rossellini 

     -The land trembles (1948), by Luchino Visconti

     -Ladri di biciclette (1948), by Vittorio de Sica 

     -Bitter rice (1949), by Giuseppe De Santis

 Others films

    -La dolce vita (1960) by Federico Fellini

    -The night (1961) by Michelangelo Antonioni
 
Some of the most famous Italian directors are:
 
- Vittorio de Sica, Federico Fellini, Sergio Leone, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Michelangelo Antonioni and Dario Argento.
 
 
Actors

Roberto Benigni and Massimo Troisison are two very important actors of Italy.
 
 
Cinema Festivals

The most famous cinema festival of Italy is The International Festival of Venice.


Sports

Soccer

The most popular sport in Italy is soccer. The national team of Italy has won the most prestigious World Cup four times in 1934, 1938, 1982 and 2006 respectively. 

The Italian national soccer team is popularly known by the name of Azzurri for their blue shirts. It is considered to be the second-most successful national football team in the world. Apart from this most of major Italian clubs get the opportunity to compete at a high level of soccer competitions.

The principals soccer teams in Italy are: Roma, Juventus, AC Milan, Inter Milan, Napoles, Fiorentina…


Waterpolo

Apart from soccer, water polo is another popular and one of the old Italy sport. The playground used for this game, is a rectangular swimming pool having 18mt breadth. Every team contains 7 players. Among them 1 is goalkeeper, 3 players remain in the defensive position and there are 3 in forward. Players wear blue and black bonnets while the goalkeeper wears a red cap. This sport of water polo lasts for 28 minutes. The players of this sport should be physically strong. Along with it a skilled technical ability is needed.

 

Cycling 

Cycling is another very popular sport in Italy, mostly due to the fact that "Giro d'Italia" has brought international athletes to towns and villages in Italy, north to south. Italians have won more World Cycling Championships than any other country except Belgium. Famous athlets are Gino Bartali, Fausto Coppi, Felice Gimondi, Alfredo Binda.

 

Auto Racing

When you think of auto racing you think of Ferrari. Auto racing receives much attention in Italy, while the nation is host to a number of notable automobile racing events, such as the famed Italian Grand Prix. The Italian flair for design is legendary, and it should come as no surprise that Ferrari has won more Formula Ones than any other manufacturer.

 


Webgraphy:

 

CIA World Factbook

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html

 

Gastronomia italiana

http://www.gastronomiaitaliana.org/presentacion.html

 

Wikipedia

http://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastronomia_d'It%C3%A0lia

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cine_de_Italia

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%BAsica_de_Italia

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religión_en_Italia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Italy

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escultura_italiana

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italia

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pintura_del_Barroco#Pintura_barroca_en_Italia

 

Viajar a Italia

http://www.viajaraitalia.com/gastronomia/

 

Viajes Italia

http://viajesitalia.es/religion-en-italia/

 

blog italia:

http://blog-italia.com/cultura-de-italia/religion-en-italia

 

Blogistar

http://www.blogistar.com/2010/02/mejores-cantantes-italianos-las-mejores-voces-de-italia/


Fran Leon

http://www.franleon.com/110-mis-mejores-canciones-de-cantantes-italianos.html

 

Bibliography:

 

García Sebastián, M. And Gatell Arimont, C. Polis Annex Edat Moderna. Vicens Vives. Barcelona, 2008

 

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