POLAND


POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY (Students of 3rd ESO D). 


Main data of the country

-        Area: 312.685 Km2

-        Population: 38.557.000 inhabitants

-        Borders: Germany (west), Czech Republic (south-west), Slovakia (south), Ukraine (east), Belarus (north-east), Lithuania (north- 
         east), Russia (north), and the  Baltic Sea (north).
-        Capital city (and its population): the capital city is Warsaw and its population is 1.700.000  inhabitants.
      Main cities (and its population): Katowice (2.000.000 inhabitants,  Krakow (756.000 inhabitants), Lodz (800.000 inhabitants),  
        Gdansk (461.482 inhabitants),  Wroclaw (640.000 inhabitants), Lublin (358.000 inhabitants), and Bialystok (292.000 inhabitants).
 
 
Map of country
 

Political organisation

 
-        Parliament (sort of parliament):  the parliament is the representative body of the state. In the parliament there are two chambers: the Sejm (low house) and the Senate (upper house). When Poland was a kingdom, the parliament used to have three-State parliaments: Sejm, Senate and King.
 
-        Elections (sort of elections, sort of political system): Poland has elections every five years. In these election they choose the president and the president choose a prime minister in these elections.
 
-        President or Prime Minister: the president in this moment is Bronisław Komorowski. Komorowski exercise powers and duties of Head of State following the death of President Lech Kaczyński in a plane crash on 10 April 2010. The prime minister is Donald Tusk, who exercises executive powers.
 
-        King or Queen: Poland hasn’t got any king because it Is a republic but the last king was Nicholas II
 
Administrative regions
               - The origin of the administrative division of  Poland dates back to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
                According to the administrative  division of 1998, Poland established three levels of administration: 16 provinces (wojewodztwa)  
                each one with its respective capital; 315 districts (powait) divided into 2489 municipalities(gmina)
 
Belonging to international organizations
                Poland belongs to:
                NATO (since 1999)
                European Union (since 2004).
                Poland expects to adopt the Euro in the following years.
 
Bibliography
                Unió Europea. Panorama de la Unión Europea. Brussel· les. Unió Europea, 2009.
                Unió Europea. Viajar por Europa 2010. Brussel·les. Unió Europea, 2009.
 
Webgraphy
                                     Wikipedia
               www.wikipedia.org
 
               CIA World Factbook
 
               Holapolonia 
 
              Guia mundial de viajes

              www.guiamundialdeviages.com 


 
ECONOMIC & SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF POLAND (Students of 3r ESO B).

Economic data

GDP

The Polish economy is stable and one of the fastest growing in the European Union in recent years. Today it stands out as a success story among transition economies of Eastern Europe.

Its GDP is $ 721.3 billion (2010) and one of the few countries in Europe that in 2008/2009 did not enter into the global economic crisis, its GDP grew.


GPD per capita

$ 18,800 (2010)


Main products

The main products of Poland are: potatoes, fruits, vegetables, corn, chicken, eggs, pork, dairy products and sugar. In the industry are machine building, iron, steel and coal mining, and chemicals are: food industry, glass, beverages and textiles.

Agriculture represents 14% of the population but only contributes to 4% of GDP, which shows the low productivity in this sector. More than half of the farms producing only for own consumption and very little for sale.

Imports

The products imported are: machinery and transport equipment occupying 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, 15% of chemicals and mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials, with 9%.

Imports expenses were $ 173.7 billion in 2010. 

In addition, Poland imported in 2009, 531.300 barrels / day of oil and 10.89 billion cubic meters of natural gas in 2010.

Exports

The products exported are machinery and transport equipment with 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods with 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods with 17.1%, food and live animals with 7.6%. In addition, they export to 2009 50400 bbl / day oil and 47milions cubic meters of natural gas in 2010.

Main Partners

Poland main export and import partners are: Germany, Russia, the Netherlands, Italy, China, France and Czech Republic.
Social data

Ethnic groups


The ethnic groups have changed a lot over the XX century. Currently, Poland has a population of 38.5 million inhabitants and ethnic groups are: the Polish with 96.7%, 0.4% with the Germans, the Belarusians, Ukrainians with 0.1%, other 2.7% unspecified.

 DHI (Human Development Index)


The DHI of Poland, is 0.813 (high) and was number 22 among European countries. In 2010.

Gini Index


The Gini index was a .340 (2008).

 

Demographics


Population
Population in July this year was 38,441,588 habitants that has been decreasing over the years compared to Europe and the Polish are a young nation with a fairly high level of formation.

Density

125h/km2

Natality Rate
The birth rate is high with 10.1 births/1000 people (2011) and therefore the population of Polish is young. The 15% are under 15 years, 72% between 15 and 62 years and 13 over 65%. Every woman has a rating of 1, 3 children.

Mortality Rate
The mortality rate with low teas 17/10 deaths/1000 inhabitants (2011) and infant mortality is still lower and one of these reasons is because the whole town comes to health.

Life expectancy
The life expectancy is 76 years. (About 72 years men and 80 women).

Percentage of Migrants
The migrant population is -0.47 migrants/1000 (2011). More than a million of polish people emigrated to the United States in the late 19th and 20th.

 

Webgraphy

-Polonia: Población

geografia.laguia2000.com

-CIA

www.cia.gov

-Polonia

www.wikipedia.org


 

HISTORY & CULTURE OF POLAND (Students of 3rd ESO A)

History of Poland

In the Prehistory, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now known as Poland. Before adopting Christianity in 960 AD, the people of Poland believed in Svetovid, the Slavic god of war, fertility, and abundance. Many other Slavic nations had the same belief.

Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the nation's new official religion, to which the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next centuries. In the 12th century, Poland fragmented into several smaller states when Bolesław divided the nation amongst his sons. 

Poland was developing as a feudal state, with a predominantly agricultural economy and an increasingly powerful landed nobility. The 1569 Union of Lublin established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state with an elective monarchy, but which was governed largely by the nobility, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament. The establishment of the Commonwealth coincided with a period of great stability and prosperity in Poland, with the union soon thereafter becoming a great European power and a major cultural entity, occupying approximately one million square kilometres of central Europe.

During World War I, a total of 2 million Polish troops fought with the armies of the three occupying powers, and 450,000 died. Shortly after the armistice with Germany in November 1918, Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic (II Rzeczpospolita Polska). It reaffirmed its independence after a series of military conflicts, the most notable being the Polish–Soviet War (1919–1921). The Sanacja movement controlled Poland until the start of World War II in 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded on 1 September and the Soviet invasion of Poland followed by breaking the Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact on 17 September. Warsaw capitulated on 28 September 1939. As agreed in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Poland was split into two zones, one occupied by Germany while the eastern provinces fell under the control of the Soviet Union. By 1941 the Soviets had moved hundreds of thousands of Poles into labor camps all over the Soviet Union, and the Soviet secret police, had executed thousands of Polish prisoners of war.


Main Monumental Cities

Nysa

Nysa is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river with 47,545 habitants. Nysa is one of the oldest towns in Silesia. It was probably founded in the 10th century and afterwards became the capital of a principality of its name.

Nysa’s monuments: St Jacob and Agnes Church (the church was consecrated in 1198); Former bishop court (originally it was a castle standing since 1260); Tower Gates (those are two out of four towers, that survived till present days); Bishops’ Palace (it was a stately residence imitating one of the palaces in Rome)…


Warsaw

Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. Warsaw's palaces, churches and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the gothic, renaissance, baroque and neoclassical periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre.

Warsaw’s buildings: St. John's Cathedral (14th century, the temple is a typical example of the so-called Masovian gothic style), Palace of the Four Winds (1730), Palace on the Water (rebuilt 1775–1795), Warsaw Barbican (a relic of historic fortifications that once encircled the city, was erected in 1540), The Classical rotunda of the Holy Trinity Evangelical Church (constructed in 1777), The dome of the St. Anthony of Padua Church (with profuse frescoes and stucco decorations, was constructed in 1690-1693), betweet others…
 

 

Gdańsk 

Gdańsk  has many fine buildings from the time of the Hanseatic League. Most tourist attractions are located along or near Ulica Długa (Long Street) and Długi Targ (Long Market), a pedestrian thoroughfare surrounded by buildings reconstructed in historical (primarily 17th century) style and flanked at both ends by elaborate city gates. This part of the city is sometimes referred to as the Royal Road as the former path of processions for visiting kings.

More buildings in Gdansk: Neptune's Fountain (a masterpiece by a Dutch architect Abraham van den Blocke, 1617), Royal Chapel of the Polish King (John III Sobieski was built in baroque style between 1678–1681), The National Museum (what contains a number of important artworks, including Hans Memling's Last Judgement), St Mary’s Church (a municipal church built during the 15th century, is the largest brick church in the world), The medieval port crane, Artus Court, Westerplatte…


Main artists of Poland

Frédéric François Chopin (1810-1849)

He was a composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music and has been called "the poet of the piano.


Krzysztof Penderecki (born November 23, 1933 in Dębica)

He is a composer and conductor. His 1960 avant-garde Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima for string orchestra brought him to international attention. He has won prestigious awards including Grammy Awards in 1987,1998 and 2001, and the Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition in 1992.


Tomasz Stanko (born 1942)

The most renowned Polish jazz trumpet player, a pioneer of the jazz avant-garde

Tadeusz Kantor (6 April 1915 – 8 December 1990): Painter, theater director, stage designer. Professor of the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow.

Wislawa Szymborska (born 1923): Poet and literary critic. Awarded Nobel Prize for literature in 1996.


Music of Poland

The origins of Polish music can be traced as far back as the 13th century; manuscripts have been found in Stary Sącz, containing polyphonic compositions related to the Parisian Notre Dame School. Other early compositions, such as the melody of Bogurodzica and Bóg się rodzi. At the end of the 18th century, Polish classical music evolved into national forms like the polonaise. In the 19th century the most popular composers were: Józef Elsner and his pupils Fryderyk Chopin and Ignacy Dobrzyński. Important opera composers of the era were Karol Kurpiński and Stanisław Moniuszko whilst the list of famous soloists and composers included Henryk Wieniawski, Juliusz Zarębski. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries the most promiment composers could said to have been Władysław Zeleński and Mieczysław Karłowicz, with Karol Szymanowski gaining prominence prior to World War II.

Traditional Polish folk music has had a major effect on the works of many well-known Polish composers, and no more so than on Fryderyk Chopin, a widely recognised national hero of the arts.

Today Poland has a very active music scene, with the jazz and metal genres being particularly popular amongst the contemporary populace. Polish jazz musicians such as Krzysztof Komeda, created a unique style, which was most famous in 60s and 70s and continues to be popular to this day. Since the fall of Communism, Poland has become a major venue for large-scale music festivals, chief among which are the Open'er Festival, Opole Festival and Sopot Festival.


Music and Folk Traditions

The Krakowiak (on the picture below) is a fast, syncopated Polish dance in duple time from the region of Krakow and Little Poland. This dance is known to imitate horses, the steps mimic their movement, for horses were well loved in the Krakow region of Poland for their civilian as well as military use. It became a popular ballroom dance in Vienna ("Krakauer") and Paris ("Cracovienne")—where, with the polonaise and the mazurka, it signalled a Romantic sensibility of sympathy towards a picturesque, distant, and oppressed nation—and in Russia, a krakoviak is featured in Mikhail Glinka's A Life for the Tsar (1836).

The polka is a Central European dance and also a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia. Polka is still a popular genre of folk music in many European countries and is performed by folk artists in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Hungary, Austria, Italy, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia and Slovakia. Local varieties of this dance are also found in the Nordic countries, United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Latin America (especially Mexico), and in the United States.
 

Main music artists

Jacek Lachowicz (born 15 November 1972 in Gostynin)

He Is a musician, author and producer. He began his musical career playing synthesizer in the alternative rock group Ścianka from 1996 to 2005. He played synthesizer in 2000 in the group Lenny Valentino (along with other members of Ścianka) before the group split in 2001.


Kroke

A Kraków instrumental ensemble of the world music genre. The band's name in Yiddish means Kraków.

The band was founded in 1992 by three friends and graduates of the Academy of Music in Kraków. Initially, they were associated with klezmer music with strong Balkan influences. Currently, their work draws inspiration from a variety of ethnic music and sounds of the Orient (especially on the album Seventh Trip), combining these with jazz to create their own distinctive style.


Krzysztof Komeda (born Krzysztof Trzciński 27 April 1931 in Poznań – 23 April 1969 in Warsaw) 

He was a Polish film music composer and jazz pianist. Perhaps best-known for his work in film scores, Komeda wrote the scores for Roman Polanski’s films Rosemary’s Baby, The Fearless Vampire Killers, Knife in the Water and Cul-de-sac. Komeda's album Astigmatic (1965) is widely regarded as one of the most important European jazz albums; critic Stuart Nicholson describes the album as "marking a shift away from the dominant American approach with the emergence of a specific European aesthetic."


Władysław "Wladek" Szpilman (5 December 1911 – 6 July 2000) 

He was a Polish-Jewish pianist, composer, and memoirist. Szpilman is widely known as the protagonist of the Roman Polanski film The Pianist, which is based on his memoir of the same name recounting how he survived the Holocaust. In November 1998 Władysław Szpilman was honored by the president of Poland with a Commander's Cross with Star of the Order of Polonia Restituta.


Krzysztof Penderecki (born November 23, 1933 in Dębica) 

He is a Polish composer and conductor. His 1960 avant-garde Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima for string orchestra brought him to international attention, and this success was followed by acclaim for his choral St. Luke Passion. Both these works exhibit novel compositional techniques. Since the 1970s Penderecki's style has changed to encompass a post-Romantic idiom.


Poland food

Polish cuisine is a blend of cuisines of Slavic, German, and culinary traditions from the area. Is closely related to the Slavic cuisines in the use of oats and other cereals, but has been influenced cuisines under Turkish, German, Hungarian, Jewish, Armenian, French or colonial cuisines of the past. We can say with great generality that Polish cuisine is rich, hearty and relatively high in fat. The Poles are famous for the generosity they spend periods of enjoyment of food.

The typical foods are:

Soap

barszcz - beet soup, common among various Slavic peoples. 

Czernin - duck blood soup.

Pierogi - pasta usually filled with sauerkraut and / or mushrooms, meat, potatoes and / or cheese, cottage cheese with a hint devainilla, or cranberries.

Bigos - a sort of sauerkraut and meat stew, but less acidic and can bring non fermented cabbage.


Religion

Catholicism is the religion of 89.9% (about 75% practicing), 

There used to be hundreds of thousands of Jews, but Nazis killed most og them during the Second World War.

Eastern Orthodox 1.3%, 

Protestant 0.3%,

 other 0.3%,

 unspecified 8.3% 


Cinema

Actors: 

Andrzej Szczytko: born 9 October 1955

Daniel Olbrychski:  born 27 February 1945

Ingrid Pitt  born 21 November 1937 die 23 November 2010

Irena Kwiatkowska born 17 September 1912 die 3 March 2011)

Marek Kondrat born 18 October 1950 


Directors

Roman Polanski born 18 August 1933

Olaf Lubaszenko born 6 December 1968

Juliusz Machulski born 10 March 1955

Tomasz Bagiński born 10 January 1976

Dariusz Zawiślak born 25 July 1972


Films

The pianist (2002)

A woman in Berlin (2008)

A summer history (2007)


Poland sports

In Poland the most popular games are: football volleyball, athletics, basketball  the boxes, the fencing, the handball, the ice hockey, the swimming, and the weightlifting but the football is the most popular of this sports.

Poland has participated in many Olympic Games as for example, Paris 1924, Los Angeles 1932, Berlin 1936, London 1948,Roma 1960,Moscow 1980,Barcelona 1992, Sydney 2000,  Athenas 2004, pekin2008.

In total Poland has won 261 medals in the Olympics. 


Webgraphy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland_at_the_2008_Summer_Olympics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland_at_the_Olympics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polonia_Warsaw

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9Al%C4%85sk_Wroc%C5%82aw

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lech_Pozna%C5%84

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyskobolia_Grodzisk_Wielkopolski

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland_national_basketball_team

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1967_FIBA_World_Championship

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BC_Anwil

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SKK_Kotwica_Ko%C5%82obrzeg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asseco_Prokom_Gdynia

http://poland.costasur.com/en/sports.html

http://www.spainexchange.com/guide/PL-religion.htm

Font(music):en.wikipedia.org/wiki/categoría:Musica_de_Polonia

Font(folks):caracas.polemb.net/index.php?document=224

Font:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/music_of_poland

Official Promotional Website Of The Republic of Poland

http://en.poland.gov.pl/Famous,Poles,543.html

Exciting Poland

http://www.excitingpoland.com/en/k1-2/k2-3/k3-14/atrakcje-225/index.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nysa%27s_monuments

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gda%C5%84sk

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warsaw

Bibliography

http://www.polonia-es.com/component/kunena/1-cultura-y-sociedad/17069-musica-folclorica-polaca?start=6&Itemid=0

http://www.musicasdelatierra.com/?cat=42








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